This initiative offers settlement options to conflict parties and those supporting them in the search for peace.
Key events and dates
8 November 2020
Myanmar holds its general election. The National League for Democracy (NLD) led by Aung San Suu Kyi won 396 seats across both upper and lower legislative houses, well above the 322 seats necessary for a parliamentary majority. The military-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party comes second in the elections but immediately contests the validity of the elections
1 February 2021
The military of Myanmar, the Tatmadaw, launches a coup on the day that the newly elected parliamentarians are meant to be sworn into office. Aung San Suu Kyi, other influential civilian leaders, and pro-democracy activists are arrested. The Tatmadaw alleges that there were 8.6 million voter irregularities in the election and nullifies its results. Power is transferred from the civilian government to a military junta called the State Administrative Council (SAC). The SAC declares a one-year state of emergency and promises new elections. No specific date is given for these new elections.
1 February 2021
ASEAN issues a statement urging a peaceful resolution to the conflict between the military and civilian forces. It does not explicitly comment on the coup but only reaffirms the organisation’s commitments to regional stability and certain declared principles.
4 February 2021
The UN Security Council releases a press statement condemning the detainment of pro-democracy activists. However, the Security Council is unable to pass a resolution condemning the coup due to Russian and Chinese opposition.
4-7 February 2021
The Committee Representing Pyidaungsu Hluttaw (CRPH) is formed by 17 elected NLD parliamentarians who were prevented from taking office by the coup. The CRPH condemns the coup and the military government as illegitimate, claiming to represent the legitimate, democratically elected legislative body of Myanmar. It claims to be the Myanmar legislature in exile.
6-7 February 2021
Large scale protests against the Tatmadaw erupt in Myanmar’s urban centres. The largest protest, occurring in the city of Yangon, draws around 150,000 civilian protestors.
8 February 2021
The junta imposed martial law on Yangon and Mandalay, the two largest cities in Myanmar, instituting a curfew and prohibiting gatherings in public spaces of groups larger than five individuals. This measure proves to be ineffective and protests continue even in the face of increasingly violent but as-of-yet nonlethal crowd control measures.
14 February 2021
The junta suspends security and privacy protections offered in the Myanmar Constitution of 2008 until the state of emergency is lifted.
Offices of the NLD are occupied and raided by police authorities. Mass strikes and protests against the coup spread throughout the country. Ethnic Armed Organisations (EAOs) centered around ethnic minorities within Myanmar renew their conflict with the Tatmadaw in the aftermath of the coup as the increased presence of security forces throughout Myanmar is viewed as a violation of the 2015 Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA).
1 March 2021
The Committee Representing Pyidaungsu Hluttaw declares the SAC a terrorist organisation for its crackdowns against protestors throughout the country.
9 March 2021
The Committee Representing Pyidaungsu Hluttaw delists all EAOs as terrorist organisations. This likely draws support for the CRPH from EAOs.
14 March 2021
The Tatmadaw and Myanmar police kill 65 protestors in Hlainthaya. This marks a major escalation in repressive tactics used by the junta against civilians. No military or police casualties are reported.
25 March 2021
Kachin Independence Army (KIA), an EAO of ethnic Kachins in Northern Myanmar which has been in conflict with the central Myanma government since 2011, captures the Alaw Bum military base in the Northern state of Kachin. They seized upon the popular animosity towards the new military junta to further their own political aims of greater Kachin autonomy. This is the first loss of territorial control for the Tatmadaw in the conflict.
26 March 2021
Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA), an EAO of ethnic Karens in Southern Myanmar, attacks a military base in the Hpapun District in South Eastern Myanmar, entering the escalating conflict against the military government. The attack killed 10 Tatmadaw soldiers. In retaliation, the Tatmadaw launch several aerial attacks on Karen villages.
28 March 2021
Dozens of protestors travel to the Northern Burmese border in order to enlist and train with pre-existing rebel groups to fight against the military government. Kachin in particular sees many people enlisting. In Kalay, armed protestors independent of any EAO clash with the Tatmadaw leading to several deaths on both sides. This is the first armed conflict between the military government and the non-EAO anti-government forces of Myanmar since the coup.
30 March 2021
The Committee Representing Pyidaungsu Hluttaw calls for the formation of a federal armed force to combat the Tatmadaw. The Arakan Army (AA), an EAO advocating for ethnic Arakanese autonomy in the Western states of Myanmar, threatens to end the ceasefire it has with the central government should military repression against the civilian population continue.
4 April 2021
Seven armed insurgent groups that were signatories to the NCA announce their support for the Committee Representing Pyidaungsu Hluttaw.
10 April 2021
The Arakan Army (an EAO fighting for Arakanese self-determination and autonomy in the Western Rakhine state in Myanmar), the Ta’ang Liberation Army (an EAO fighting for Ta’ang self-determination and autonomy in North Eastern Myanmar), and the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (an EAO fighting for Kokang Chinese self-determination and autonomy in North Eastern Myanmar) launch an attack on the Tatmadaw in the North Eastern state of Shan, killing ten soldiers. These EAOs compose 3 of the 4 groups in the Northern Alliance, a military coalition of rebel groups who did not sign the NCA.
16 April 2021
The CRPH establishes the National Unity Government (NUG), which claims to be the legitimate government in exile of Myanmar. It appoints several ethnic minority members to senior cabinet positions. In particular, the NUG assures the Karen and Kachin people that they will have top priority. Leaders of the NUG call for international recognition of their government. The State Administrative Council (SAC) labels the NUG an illegal and terrorist organisation.
24 April 2021
ASEAN states and representatives from the Tatmadaw agree upon the ‘Five-point Consensus’ in Jakarta, which calls for:
- An immediate cessation of violence in Myanmar
- Negotiations to begin between all conflict parties
- Negotiations to be overseen by an ASEAN Special Envoy
- ASEAN to provide humanitarian aid to Myanmar
- The ASEAN Special Envoy to travel to Myanmar and meet with all interested parties
26 April 2021
The Tatmadaw walked back its commitment to the Five-point Consensus, stating that “it will give careful consideration to constructive suggestions made by ASEAN Leaders when the situation returns to stability in the country”.
5 May 2021
NUG establishes the People’s Defense Force (PDF), its armed wing.
21 May 2021
The now military-appointed Myanmar electoral authority announces that it plans to permanently dissolve the NLD as a political organisation in Myanmar.
23 May 2021
First armed confrontation between PDF and the Tatmadaw in the town of Muse in Shan State, North Eastern Myanmar. 13 Tatmadaw soldiers are killed in the clash.
30 May 2021
Final rebel group comprising the Northern Alliance, the Kachin Independence Army (an EAO fighting for the self-determination and autonomy of Kachins in Northern Myanmar) joins the conflict on the side of the NUG.
1 August 2021
The military junta extends the state of emergency, announcing it may last until August 2023. The Chairman of the SAC, Min Aung Hliang, declares himself the Prime Minister of Myanmar.
3 August 2021
The United States charges two Myanmar citizens for an alleged plot to hire hitmen and assassinate Myanmar’s civilian-appointed UN representative who has been an outspoken critic of the coup. The Tatmadaw denies any involvement in this plot.
7 September 2021
The NUG declares a state of emergency and announces a people’s defensive war against the military government.
14 October 2021
ASEAN special envoy to Myanmar cancels his visit to the country after the junta denied him an audience with Aung San Su Kyi and other pro-democracy activists, a key part of the Five-point Consensus.
25 October 2021
Noeleen Heyzer succeeds Christine Schraner Burgener as UN Special Envoy on Myanmar. The original mandate of the Special Envoy was to investigate and assess the treatment of the Rohingya at the hands of the Myanma government. However, with the military coup, Burgener and later Heyzer both became outspoken critics of the violent tactics employed by the military against the civilian population in general.
24 December 2021
Noeleen Heyzer succeeds Christine Schraner Burgener as UN Special Envoy on Myanmar. The original mandate of the Special Envoy was to investigate and assess the treatment of the Rohingya at the hands of the Myanmar government. However, with the military coup, Burgener and later Heyzer both became outspoken critics of the violent tactics employed by the military against the civilian population in general.
23 July 2022
SAC announces that it has executed four political prisoners. This is the first time the death penalty has been used in Myanmar since the late 1980s. This is widely condemned by the international community including by the UN and the G7.
15 August 2022
A junta court sentences Aung San Suu Kyi to 6 years in prison for corruption.
16 August 2022
Two shells fired by the Myanma army strikes a Rohinga refugee camp in Bangladesh, killing one and injuring five. Two Myanma military helicopters are alleged to have flown into Bengali airspace and fired at least one shell.
17 August 2022
UN Special Envoy for Myanmar Noeleen Heyzer meets with Min Aung Hliang and urges him to issue an immediate moratorium on further executions and to de-escalate violence. She also desired to see Aung San Su Kyi but ultimately was unable to do so.
18 August 2022
Bengali authorities summon the Myanmar ambassador to protest the violation of their land and airspace.
21 October 2022
Bengali Foreign Minister credits a meeting with the Chinese ambassador to Bangladesh with the cessation of border bombings by the Tatmadaw.
23 October 2022
A junta airstrike on a concert held to celebrate the 62nd anniversary of the founding of the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO), an anti-junta EAO, killing at least 80 civilians and an unknown number of KIO officials and soldiers. The attack is widely condemned internationally.
27 November 2022
The Arakan Army (AA), an anti-junta EAO, enters into a temporary ceasefire with the junta for ostensibly humanitarian reasons.
16 December 2022
The BURMA ACT is passed in the United States which enables sanctions against individuals involved in the 2021 coup, support Myanma civil society, and offer humanitarian aid, as well as a position in the State Department dedicated to democracy promotion in Myanmar.
21 December 2022
The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 2669, urging restraint in the conflict and calling for the release of political prisoners.
30 December 2022
Aung San Suu Kyi is sentenced to 33 years in prison for corruption by a junta court.
Positions of the sides
Key news sources
Post grids here
Recent developments in Myanmar stand in stark contrast to the despair that descended upon the country almost three years ago. The People’s Defense Forces has made sweeping gains against the military junta in recent months, prompting predictions that the regime could be on the verge of collapse.
As an ongoing offensive by armed ethnic organizations has Myanmar’s junta on its heels, Myanmar’s opposition wants Western governments to prepare for what could come next.
Five European countries and Canada have teamed up to join the genocide case at the International Court of Justice that accuses Myanmar of committing genocide against the mostly Muslim Rohingya.
As the national uprising against Myanmar’s junta gains strength, a question hovers over the widening campaign. If this patchwork of ethnic armed groups, deposed leaders, activists and armed defense forces succeeds, would they be able to govern, or would the country descend into greater chaos?
The military-installed president of Myanmar has warned that the country is in danger of breaking apart if the government cannot control fighting which has broken out in Shan State.
Myanmar’s military government says it has lost control of an important town on the border with China after days of fierce fighting with armed groups.
Some Myanmar observers hope that the coordinated offensive in Shan State will catalyze wider changes, and even lead to the collapse of the military administration.
Myanmar’s military government hosted representatives from ethnic rebel groups Sunday to mark the eighth anniversary of the signing of a multilateral cease-fire agreement. But the event was boycotted by three of the signatories that oppose the current army-installed regime.
Southeast Asian leaders have “strongly condemned” the continuing violence in Myanmar, directly blaming the bloodshed on the generals who seized power in a coup in February 2021.
Malaysia has called for “strong” measures against Myanmar’s generals, saying “obstacles” they created have blocked the implementation of a plan to restore peace more than two years since the military seized power in a coup.
Members of the United Nations Security Council – with the exception of veto-wielding China and Russia – have condemned the “unrelenting violence” raging across Myanmar following a closed-door briefing on the crisis.
Former Myanmar leader Aung San Suu Kyi has been pardoned in five of 19 charges brought against her by the military. The pardon, part of a seasonal amnesty, will reduce her 33-year jail sentence by six years.
Myanmar’s military-controlled government has extended the state of emergency it imposed when the army seized power from an elected government in 2021, forcing a further delay in elections it promised when it took over.
Myanmar’s ousted civilian leader Aung San Suu Kyi has been moved to house arrest after the military detained her following a coup in February 2021.
Chinese-sponsored talks in Myanmar between the junta and three of Myanmar’s ethnic armies, known as the Brotherhood Alliance, aimed at persuading the three to support the junta’s election plan concluded without an agreement Friday.
Former United Nations chief Ban Ki-moon has urged an end to the violence that has rocked Myanmar since the February 2021 coup, and renewed efforts to secure lasting peace and a legitimate government.
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