This initiative offers settlement options to conflict parties and those supporting them in the search for peace.
Key events and dates
Large protests began against the authoritarian regime of Bashar al-Assad. Over the next months, the protests were met with increasing state violence which spiralled into civil conflict. Despite initial concessions by the Government, the opposition grew, and violence worsened.
16 March 2012
Following his February appointment as the Joint Special Envoy of the United Nations and the League of Arab States on the Syrian crisis, Kofi Annan submitted his Six-Point Peace Plan to the United Nations Security Council, who subsequently endorsed the Plan under Resolution 2042 (2012). Later that same month, it was accepted by the Government of Syria, though there were reservations from the opposition.
The six points of the plan were:
- Commit to work with the Envoy in an inclusive Syrian-led political process;
- Commit to stop the fighting and achieve urgently an effective United Nations supervised cessation of armed violence in all its forms by all parties to protect civilians and stabilise the country;
- Ensure timely provision of humanitarian assistance to all areas affected by the fighting, including a daily two-hour humanitarian pause;
- Intensify the pace and scale of release of arbitrarily detained persons, including especially vulnerable categories of persons, and persons involved in peaceful political activities;
- Ensure freedom of movement throughout the country for journalists;
- Respect freedom of association and the right to demonstrate peacefully as legally guaranteed.
30 June 2012
The Geneva I peace talks attended by representatives from the United Nations, the League of Arab States, the European Union, the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, China, France, Turkey, Iraq, Kuwait, and Qatar sought to support a resolution through the Six-Point Plan. The Special Envoy presented the Geneva Communiqué on behalf of the Contact Group, which included powersharing proposals. However, the Communiqué was not supported by the Government of Syria who had not attended the talks and subsequently Kofi Annan resigned as Special Envoy, to be replaced by Lakhdar Brahimi.
22 January – 15 February 2014
Directly talks were held to negotiate the Six-Point Peace Plan as part of the UN-backed Geneva II peace talks. Talks collapsed as progress could not be reached between the parties. Special Envoy Brahimi resigned from his post after this, noting the lack of international cohesion, to later be replaced by Staffan de Mistura.
10 April 2015
Direct talks are held in Moscow, Russia, under the mediator Vitaly Naumkin. However, the mediation ended acrimoniously without any progress.
30 October – 14 November 2015
The International Syria Support Group (ISSG) convened in Vienna, Austria, to discuss the peace process in Syria. Participants issued a Joint Statement in support of the UN Plan as well as outlining the timeline for a constitution-drafting process and subsequent elections.
18 December 2015
UN Security Council Resolution 2254 (2015) was adopted, specifically addressing the political crisis in Syria. The UNSCR called for the Special Envoy to lead negotiations, reiterated the ISSGs role and the constitutional timeline leading to elections in 18 months. It established the 2012 Geneva Communiqué as “the basis for a Syrian-led and Syrian-owned political transition”.
3-5 February 2016
The Geneva III peace talks were held in Geneva, Switzerland. However, they were suspended after three days.
26 February 2016
Further to the efforts of the Russian and US co-chaired ISSG to negotiate a nationwide ceasefire, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 2268 (2016). The ceasefire took effect on 27 February. However, the agreement unravelled by July.
13-18 April 2016
The Geneva IV peace talks were held in Geneva, Switzerland. However, the opposition abandoned the talks due to the serious escalation of violence.
12 September 2016
Russia and the United States mediated a new national ceasefire. However, the ceasefire agreement subsequently collapsed.
31 December 2016
Following mediation by Russia and Turkey, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 2336 (2016) to recognise a new national ceasefire and welcome the new political negotiations due to take place in Astana, Kazakhstan, between the Government of Syria and the opposition.
23-24 January 2017
Astana I was held in Astana, Kazakhstan, attended by representatives from Iran, Russia, and Turkey, as well as the Syrian government and opposition forces. Russia, Turkey and Iran agreed on a trilateral ceasefire monitoring body. Neither the opposition nor the government delegation supported the statement.
15-16 February 2017
Astana II was held in Astana, Kazakhstan, attended by representatives from Iran, Russia, and Turkey, as well as the Syrian parties. Participants committed to formalising a mechanism to monitor the ceasefire agreement declared in December 2016. The participants also pledged to continue negotiations on a mechanism for the exchange of prisoners and fatalities.
23 February – 7 March 2017
Geneva V peace talks were held in Geneva, Switzerland, where the Special Envoy noted that the parties had agreed to negotiate in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 2254 (2015).
14-15 March 2017
Astana III was held in Astana, Kazakhstan, attended by representatives from Iran, Russia, and Turkey. The Syrian opposition boycotted the talks accusing the government of violating the ceasefire agreement.
3-4 May 2017
Astana IV was held in Astana, Kazakhstan, attended by representatives from Iran, Russia, and Turkey, as well as the Syrian parties. Iran, Russia and Turkey agreed on a plan for de-escalation zones in Syrian opposition territory, including a cessation of hostilities in the four de-escalation zones to provide access for humanitarian assistance. However, the opposition delegation suspended their participation in the cessation of hostilities agreement due to government violations.
29-30 January 2018
Russia hosted the “Syrian Congress of National Dialogue” peace talks in Sochi, Russia, which was boycotted by the opposition leadership. The parties committed to establish a constitutional committee to lead a constitution-drafting process, which the Special Envoy stated would become a reality in Geneva.
23 September 2019
The United Nations Secretary-General announced an agreement between the Government of Syria and the opposition on the composition of the Constitutional Committee, along with the Terms of Reference and Core Rules of Procedure. The Committee has a Large Body and a Small Body. The Large Body consists of 150 delegates, equally representing the government, opposition and CSO members selected by the UN. The Small Body is comprised of 45 members, with 15 delegates from each group. The first and only working session is the Large Body took place from 31 October to 1 November 2019.
Positions of the sides
Syria’s conflict commenced as part of the Arab Spring, with opposition groups seeking democratic reforms and the ouster of the autocratic regime of President Bashar Al-Assad. The conflict, initially defined by these binary divisions, has become more complex as a myriad of other conflict parties emerged. Internally, different factions of the opposition, Kurdish groups, and various violent extremist groups, including the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), claimed their own stake in the conflict. The sheer number of external actors militarily engaged in Syria appears impossible to trace, having numbered above 70 states involved in the anti-ISIL campaign alone. Of these, the most noteworthy states leading military operations in Syria are Russia and Iran seeking to prop up the Assad regime, Turkey attempting to reverse Kurdish gains and to secure its border, and the United States fighting ISIL and other violent extremist groups and supporting opposition forces.
All of these conflict parties have divergent positions that they bring to the negotiating table—if willing to participate in a dialogue process at all. Throughout the conflict, Syria’s main conflict parties, the Assad-led Syrian government and the opposition, were unwilling to entertain any meaningful concessions that would culminate in a peace settlement. Opposition groups maintained a strong stance against President Assad and his closest affiliates, insisting that they have no political future in Syria. Meanwhile, President Assad fiercely clung to power, choosing to violently suppress the Syrian people rather than offer genuine institutional reform.
There were many fora offering a platform for negotiations between the main conflict parties, most notably the Geneva I and II peace talks and subsequent dialogues held in Geneva, and the series of meetings held by the so-called Astana Guarantors, representing Iran, Russia, and Turkey. As part of the UN-led peace effort, the Syrian Constitutional Committee was established to lead the constitution-drafting process. The Committee served as a key forum for conflict parties to attempt to translate their positions into a concrete governing framework.
In addition to the divergent positions of the various conflict parties, the United Nations’ role in mediating a peace settlement has been hampered by the active role of other external actors. The recent development of Syria’s resubmission to the League of Arab States risks further undermining the UN-lead peace process. Especially, as it further emboldens President Assad to maintain his positions and to refuse to grant concessions to the opposition and other parties. Despite this, UN Security Council Resolution 2254 (2015) remains as the main reference point for peace talks, with no framework to replace it.
The Syrian government has sought to stall the peace process, including by creating obstacles for the establishment of the Syrian Constitutional Committee, to wait until the realities on the ground award it a favorable negotiating position. Kurdish officials have expressed their readiness to hold peace talks with the Assad-led Syrian government under the condition that any settlement does not affect Kurdish territorial gains or the communities living under Kurdish control. Russia sought to mediate dialogue between Kurdish groups and the Syrian government. The Syrian opposition is concerned that the Assad-led government’s military gains on the ground and diplomatic reintegration in the international community, have undermined its negotiating position.
One of the key sticking points in the negotiations throughout the peace process has been the political role of President Assad in Syria‘s future. The contentious nature of President Assad’s standing also created rifts among international stakeholders. For most of the conflict, the opposition, and some of its backers such as the U.S., called for Assad to leave and refused to consider any governance arrangement that would enable Assad to stay in power.
Although a political transition, including elections and a constitution-drafting process, is foreseen in UN Security Council Resolution 2254 (2015), the Assad-led Syrian government has been unwilling to advance constitutional reform or elections. Relatedly, the formation of a transitional governing authority, as demanded by the opposition, represented a major stumbling block in the peace negotiations. The Syrian government has however forwarded the idea of a national unity government.
Some commenters have proposed using the 1950 Constitution as a constitutional basis, given it is considered to hold popular legitimacy having been adopted through an elected National Assembly. Others consider it an unworkable proposal as it does not contain subnational provisions, nor is it sufficiently modern. A gathering of opposition groups rejected the approach. Within the Syrian Constitutional Committee, the opposition has proposed a constitutional separation of powers.
The Syrian Constitutional Committee calls for elections with greater transparency. However, some of the armed opposition groups, notably Ahrar al-Sham al-Islamiya (HASI), have limited appetite for elections, instead preferring governance arrangements that adhere to Sharia law, and have rejected proposals for the election of political leaders.
The opposition has a number of internal differences. For example, even the Syrian Negotiation Commission holds a variety of views on social issues such as human rights, gender rights, the role of religion in the state, and other matters.
Other points of disagreement include the length of the transitional period, a mechanism to ensure fair representation of minorities, and plans for the reform and reconstitution of state institutions.
Institutional and subnational arrangements:
There is broad agreement among all stakeholders on the importance of Syria remaining a sovereign, independent and unified country.
The Syrian government, notably President Assad, has publicly rejected proposals to consider a decentralized state system. Opposition groups are divided in their support for decentralization, though mostly supportive of a less centralized state system. Kurdish groups demand a decentralized state system that grants the Kurdish majority regions with self-determination within a unified Syrian state. Kurdish groups are also calling for greater minority rights.
The Syrian government is seeking to regain control over the remaining territory within the borders of the Syrian state. The political arms of the Syrian opposition are committed to a ceasefire and humanitarian access, while opposition armed groups are more ambivalent. All parties have expressed the need to combat terrorism. Some of the United Nations-appointed members of the Syrian Constitutional Committee have put forward demands for the release of political prisoners. Meanwhile, the security forces of the Kurdish-led autonomous region in northeast Syria–the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF)–see themselves as an integral part of the Syrian army.
Kurdish officials have called for an equitable revenue sharing model that accounts for the fact that a significant share of Syria’s resources, including oil fields, are located in areas under Kurdish control.
Refugees living in neighboring countries and beyond are calling for security guarantees as they are concerned about reprisals from the Syrian government. Officials from the Kurdish-led autonomous region in northeast Syria have offered to take in millions of refugees from neighboring countries. This move was seen favorably by neighboring states struggling with the accommodation of Syrian refugees.
Given the number of external actors involved in the Syrian conflict, all stakeholders agree that a sustainable political settlement requires an end to external interference.
Regional states once fiercely opposed to the regime of President Assad and stern supporters of the opposition, including Saudi Arabia and Egypt, are now pursuing a strategy of rapprochement with the Assad-led Syrian government. Such actions may be influenced by a realization that after over a decade of conflict and the Syrian government’s ability to reclaim control over large swaths of territory, a political future without President Assad is not feasible. In addition, the Assad regime has a great need for funds.
The position of ‘western’ countries towards the Assad-led Syrian government has also evolved, where harder positions have now shifted away from outright regime change. Instead, they are seeking to engage with the Assad regime towards influencing its actions. The United States and European countries continue to condition a normalization of diplomatic ties and financial support on a change in behavior. The current UN Special Envoy has described a step by step approach and a need for international actors to shift from a zero-sum mindset. A similar position has been described by the United States, who have stated that currently there is no opportunity for a comprehensive solution.
Some of the United Nations-appointed members of the Syrian Constitutional Committee have requested the lifting of western sanctions. However, a lifting of sanctions appears unlikely without political progress.
Many stakeholders also oppose the collaboration between Kurdish military units and United States security forces. The Syrian government, as well as Russia and Turkey, seek to undermine their relationship. Turkey claims that an autonomous Kurdish region at its Syrian border would pose a national security threat.
Syria and Turkey have had disputes over the incursion of Turkish troops into northeast Syria, with the Syrians demanding a Turkish withdrawal as a precondition to a normalization of relations. At the same time, the countries have points of potential–if unlikely–exchange, such as Syrian support in combating Kurdish statehood, Turkish action against Hayat Tahrir al-Sham, and the repatriation of Syrian refugees.
- Protests commence in opposition to the authoritarian regime of Bashar Al-Assad. What started as peaceful gatherings rapidly transformed into civil war following a violent crackdown by regime forces.
23 August 2011
- The Syrian National Council was formed, claiming to be the legitimate representative body of the opposition.
12 February 2012
- The League of Arab States issues a request to the United Nations Security Council to adopt a resolution for the establishment of a joint LAS-UN peacekeeping force.
24 February 2012
- The inaugural meeting of the ‘Friends of Syria’ was held in Tunis, Tunisia. The meeting was attended by representatives from over 70 Member States and organisations. Participants called for an end of the hostilities to allow for the delivery of humanitarian aid and recognized the Syrian National Council as a legitimate representative of the opposition. The ‘Friends of Syria’ Forum continued to provide a critical platform for negotiations among key stakeholders.
16 March 2012
- The UN-LAS Special Envoy submitted a proposal for a Six-Point Peace Plan to the United Nations Security Council. The Plan outlines the following commitments:
- A Syrian-led political process under the auspices of the Envoy;
- A cessation of hostilities by all parties with a UN supervision mechanism;
- Access for the provision of humanitarian assistance, including commitment to a daily two-hour humanitarian pause;
- The release of arbitrarily detained persons;
- Assurance of unhindered access for journalists; and
- Respect for the freedom of association and the right to demonstrate peacefully.
21 March 2012
- The United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 2042 (2012) endorsing the Six-Point Peace Plan.
27 March 2012
- According to the Office of the UN-LAS Special Envoy, the Syrian Government expressed its intention to accept the proposed Six-Point Peace Plan.
- Syrian opposition groups lament that the Plan does not entail details on the future of President Assad and fails to call for his removal of power.
- Representatives of Syria’s main opposition groups met in Istanbul, Turkey, to build consensus on shared political goals and to achieve a more united front. The meetings were led by the Syrian National Council, which was seeking to agree on a “national pact” of common objectives
12 April 2012
- UN facilitated mediations culminate in a ceasefire agreement between the Syrian Government and opposition forces. However, the terms of the Agreement were violated shortly thereafter.
30 June 2012
- In meetings that have become known as the Geneva I peace talks, representatives from the United Nations, the League of Arab States, the European Union, the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, China, France, Turkey, Iraq, Kuwait, and Qatar gathered to advance the Syrian peace process on the basis of the Six-Point Plan. The format represented the Action Group for Syria and was chaired by the UN-LAS Special Envoy for Syria. Participants reached agreement on a number of key issues that are reflected in the Final Communiqué of the Contact Group. The Communiqué outlined a framework for the peace process, calling for the formation of a transitional government and for the facilitation of a national dialogue process. The Communiqué further envisioned a constitution-drafting process, the outcome of which was to serve as the basis for national elections.
- The Kurdish-led Autonomous Administration of North-East Syria (AANES) is established
2 August 2012
- Given the lack of support for his peace plan, UN-LAS Special Envoy Kofi Annan resigned from his position. Lakhdar Brahimi was appointed as his replacement and served in the role of the UN-LAS Special Envoy for Syria from 1 September 2012 to 14 May 2014.
11 November 2012
- The Syrian National Council comes together with other opposition groups to announce the formation of the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces, which becomes known as the Syrian National Coalition.
6 January 2013
- Syrian President Assad issues an announcement for his own peace plan that envisions the formation of a new government, the commencement of a constitution-drafting process, and the facilitation of a national reconciliation conference. However, the Syrian opposition, including the Syrian National Coalition, proceeds to reject the proposed peace initiative, citing President Assad’s unwillingness to exit politics.
27 September 2013
- The UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2118 (2013), calling for the convening of the Geneva II peace talks, endorsing the establishment of a transitional governing body in Syria with full executive powers, and requiring the verification and destruction of Syria’s chemical weapons stockpiles. The Joint Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons indicated on 31 October, that the Syrian government had destroyed chemical weapons production facilities within the provided time period.
22 January – 15 February 2014
- The Geneva II peace talks between the Syrian government and the opposition were held. However, the peace talks collapsed amidst a deadlock between the negotiation parties, with UN officials pointing to the Syrian government’s refusal to consider any concessions for the opposition.
13 May 2014
- UN-LAS Special Envoy Brahimi handed in his resignation, citing a lack of support and consensus on a coherent policy on the Syrian conflict from the international community.
3 June 2014
- The Syrian government facilitated presidential elections, with incumbent President Assad emerging as the winner. The Speaker of Parliament claimed that President Assad had won with 88.7 percent of the vote. The elections were denounced by the Syrian opposition and the international community as failing to adhere to the most basic standards of free and fair elections.
10 July 2014
- Staffan de Mistura assumed his role as the UN Special Envoy for Syria.
10 April 2015
- Peace talks between the Syrian parties were held in Moscow, Russia. The mediation process collapsed without any meaningful breakthrough.
23 July 2015
- The two main groups representing the Syrian opposition, the Syrian National Coalition (SNC) and the National Coordination Body for the Forces of Democratic Change (NCB), came together to reach an agreement on a proposed roadmap for the peace process.
30 October 2015
- The format of the International Syria Support Group, comprising twenty members, convened for meetings in Vienna, Austria.
14 November 2015
- Members of the International Syria Support Group (ISSG) re-convened for meetings in Vienna, Austria, to discuss the peace process in Syria and to build on the progress made two weeks earlier. Participants reached consensus on a Joint Statement, reaffirming their support for the commitments outlined in the 2012 Geneva Communiqué and reiterating the need for a UN-led negotiation process between the Syrian government and the opposition. Participants also called for the implementation of a nationwide ceasefire and pledged support for a UN Security Council authorised ceasefire monitoring mechanism. In an ambitious move, the ISSG members also called for the commencement of a drafting-process for a new constitution within six months and the facilitation of elections pursuant to the new constitution within 18 months.
- The UN Special Envoy mediated a ceasefire agreement that resulted in a halt of hostilities in Homs. Government forces have commenced their assault on the opposition held city in February 2012. The Agreement foresees the withdrawal of opposition forces.
18 December 2015
- The UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2254 (2015). The Resolution represented the first resolution focused exclusively on a political solution to the Syrian crisis and continues to serve as the basis for negotiations, providing for a framework for the transition. The Resolution stipulates that the 2012 Geneva Communiqué was to serve as “the basis for a Syrian-led and Syrian-owned political transition,” and requests the UN Special Envoy “to convene representatives of the Syrian government and the opposition to engage in formal negotiations on a political transition process on an urgent basis, with a target of early January 2016 for the initiation of talks.” In line with the ‘Vienna Statements’ of the ISSG, the Resolution foresees that a political dialogue lead to agreement on a governing framework and a constitution-drafting process within six months and that elections be held within 18 months.
3 February 2016
- The Third Round of intra-Syrian peace talks, the so-called Geneva III process, was held in Geneva, Switzerland. After three days of talks, the UN Special Envoy declared that the peace talks would be suspended until 25 February. Representatives from the Syrian Negotiations Commission, representing the opposition, expressed grievances over sieges, the lack of humanitarian aid and prisoner releases. The UN Special Envoy remained hopeful, stating that “[t]his is not the end and not the failure of the talks. They both came and they both stayed – and both sides insisted on a political process.”
11-12 February 2016
- The members of the International Syria Support Group convened for meetings in Munich, Germany. In a Joint Statement, participants committed to establishing a Ceasefire Task Force. The Task Force operates under the auspices of the UN and is co-chaired by Russia and the United States. Participants also affirmed their commitment to assurances of humanitarian access and the delivery of humanitarian aid to besieged areas.
26 February 2016
- The UN Security Council adopted Resolution 2268 (2016).
27 February 2016
- A nationwide ceasefire agreement took effect. The Cessation of Hostilities agreement was mediated by representatives from Russia and the United States and was accepted by the Syrian government and most Syrian opposition groups. Parties to the agreement vowed to grant humanitarian access and to resume peace talks. However, the truce collapsed within a couple of months.
13-18 April 2016
- The Fourth Round of intra-Syrian peace talks, the so-called Geneva IV process, was held in Geneva, Switzerland. The peace talks collapse as the Syrian opposition walks out of the negotiations in response to an escalation of violence on the ground and insufficient progress on issues related to humanitarian assistance and prisoner exchanges.
9 May 2016
- The Ceasefire Task Force co-chairs, Russia and the United States, issued a Joint Statement reaffirming their commitment to intensify efforts to ensure the Cessation of Hostilities agreement’s nationwide implementation. They also welcomed the ongoing work of the Task Force and other mechanisms such as the UN Operations Center and the Russian-U.S. Coordination Cell.
17 May 2016
- The members of the International Syria Support Group (ISSG) convened for meetings in Vienna, Austria. Participants issued a Joint Statement reiterating their determination to strengthen the Cessation of Hostilities agreement, calling for humanitarian access, and affirming their support for a peaceful political transition.
24 August 2016
- The Syrian government and the Kurdish YPG agreed on a ceasefire to halt military operations in the city of Hasaka.
12 September 2016
- Representatives from Russia and the United States mediated another ceasefire agreement between the Syrian government and some opposition groups. However, in a similar development, the ceasefire agreement collapsed.
29 September 2016
- Representatives from Russia and Turkey brokered a nationwide Ceasefire Agreement that was to take effect the following day. Russian President Vladimir Putin announced that the agreement would be followed by peace talks between delegations from the Syrian government and the opposition to be held in Astana, Kazakhstan. Russia and Turkey also commit to “assuming obligations as Guarantors of the ceasefire regime” and to “establish a Joint Commission that shall serve as the main body to consider all complaints and issues related to violations of the ceasefire regime.” To that end the Guarantors “shall establish checkpoints (…) in the vicinity of the actual line of contact among the Parties” and “shall undertake all possible measures to resolve differences among the Parties on compliance with the ceasefire regime and the resolution of conflicts among them.”
31 December 2016
- The UN Security Council adopted Resolution 2336 (2016), welcoming efforts by Russia and Turkey to end the violence in Syria and to mediate a political settlement.
23-24 January 2017
- The First Meeting of the Astana Guarantors, including representatives from Iran, Russia, and Turkey, was held in Astana, Kazakhstan. The meeting aimed at launching negotiations between the Syrian government and the Syrian opposition. The UN Special Envoy participated in the facilitation of the talks and observed that “there are very intense discussions because this is not about a paper; it is about cessation of hostilities, which means saving lives.” Participants issued a Joint Statement, expressing their “conviction that there is no military solution to the Syrian conflict and that it can only be solved through a political process based on the implementation of the UN Security Council resolution 2254 in its entirety.” The Guarantors agreed to establish a trilateral monitoring mechanism for the ceasefire agreement that was brokered on 30 December 2016. The event also marks the first time that representatives of opposition forces have entered negotiations with representatives of the Syrian government. However, neither the delegation of the Syrian government nor the delegation of the opposition forces sign or support the agreement or the joint statement. The peace talks as part of the Astana peace process continued to be held until recently, when the Kazakhstan government informed that it would not continue hosting the meetings in Astana.
15-16 January 2017
- The Second Meeting of the Astana Guarantors, including representatives from Iran, Russia, and Turkey, was held. Participants commit to formalising a mechanism to monitor the ceasefire agreement declared in December 2016. The participants also pledged to continue negotiations on a mechanism for the exchange of prisoners and fatalities.
23 February – 7 March 2017
- The Fifth Round of intra-Syrian peace talks, the so-called Geneva V process, was held in Geneva, Switzerland. The UN Special Envoy informed that representatives from the Syrian government and the Syrian opposition reached an agreement on future negotiations on the basis of the transitional framework proposed by UN Security Council Resolution 2254 (2015).
14-15 March 2017
- The Third Meeting of the Astana Guarantors, including representatives from Iran, Russia, and Turkey, was held. Representatives from the Syrian opposition boycott the talks in light of violations of a ceasefire agreement declared in December 2016 by forces of the Syrian government.
3-4 March 2017
- The Fourth Meeting of the Astana Guarantors, including representatives from Iran, Russia, and Turkey, was held. The Guarantors reached an agreement on the establishment of de-escalation zones in territory held by the Syrian opposition. The Proposal calls for the cessation of hostilities between forces of the Syrian government and the Syrian opposition in the four de-escalation zones identified by the participants with the aim of securing access for humanitarian assistance. The Syrian opposition announced a suspension of its participation in the cessation of hostilities agreement citing violations by forces of the Syrian government.
16-19 May 2017
- The Sixth Round of intra-Syrian peace talks, the so-called Geneva VI process, concluded without agreement in Geneva. Switzerland. The UN Special Envoy shared a proposal formation of a consultative mechanism to advance the Syrian constitution-drafting process. The proposal foresaw that under the auspices of the good offices of the UN Special Envoy, both the Syrian government and the Syrian opposition nominate legal experts to oversee all legal issues during the transitional period. The Syrian Negotiation Commission rejected the proposal and proposed further revisions.
4-5 July 2017
- The Fifth Meeting of the Astana Guarantors, including representatives from Iran, Russia, and Turkey, was held. The Guarantors are unable to reach consensus on the precise details of the boundaries and the monitoring of the four safe zones that have been agreed upon in an earlier meeting.
10-14 July 2017
- The Seventh Round of intra-Syrian peace talks, the so-called Geneva VII process, concluded without any meaningful breakthrough. The UN Special Envoy citied the Syrian government’s unwillingness to explore options for a transitional process. Nasser al–Hariri, the lead negotiator of the Syrian opposition cautioned that “the political process is in danger because, after all these rounds, the international committee doesn’t put enough pressure on the regime and its allies to engage in this negotiation.”
14-15 September 2017
- The Sixth Meeting of the Astana Guarantors, including representatives from Iran, Russia, and Turkey, was held. The Guarantors agree to establish de-escalation zones throughout Syria for a period of six months, with the possibility of extension. The de-escalation zones will include the areas and cities of Eastern Ghouta, the provinces of Idlib, Homs, Latakia, Aleppo and Hama.
1 November 2017
- The Seventh Meeting of the Astana Guarantors, including representatives from Iran, Russia, and Turkey, was held. The Syrian opposition rejected a Russian proposal for negotiations with the Syrian government.
29 November – 15 December 2017
- The Eighth Round of intra-Syrian peace talks, the so-called Geneva VIII process, was held in Geneva, Switzerland. Both parties proved unwilling to make meaningful concessions. While the delegation of the Syrian government refused to negotiate potential constitutional reforms and presidential elections, the Syrian opposition clearly stated that it was unwilling to consider governance arrangements that would grant a role for President Assad.
21-22 December 2017
- The Eighth Meeting of the Astana Guarantors, including representatives from Iran, Russia, and Turkey, was held in Astana, Kazakhstan. The Guarantors agreed to hold a National Dialogue Conference for all parties to the Syrian conflict in Russia in January 2018.
25-26 January 2018
- The Ninth Round of intra-Syrian peace talks, as part of the so-called Geneva IX process, was held in Vienna, Austria. The UN Special Envoy lamented that he shares “the immense frustration of millions of Syrians inside and outside the country at the lack of a political settlement to date.”
29-30 January 2018
- Russia hosted a peace conference in Sochi. The Syrian opposition and the Syrian government committed to establish a constitutional committee to lead a constitution drafting process. The participants also stressed the need to facilitate elections.
24 February 2018
- The UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2401 (2018), demanding a cessation of hostilities in Syria.
6 March 2018
- The Ninth Meeting of the Astana Guarantors, including representatives from Iran, Russia, and Turkey, was held.
14-15 May 2018
- The Tenth Meeting of the Astana Guarantors, including representatives from Iran, Russia, and Turkey, was held.
19 June 2018
- The UN Special Envoy hosted a meeting of the Astana Guarantors, including representatives from Iran, Russia, and Turkey, in Geneva, Switzerland, to discuss the formation of a Constitutional Committee.
30-31 July 2018
- The Astana Guarantors, including representatives from Iran, Russia, and Turkey, held a meeting in Sochi, Russia, to discuss the Syrian political process, reiterating their support for a peace process in line with UN Security Council resolution 2254 (2015).
7 September 2018
- The Presidents of Iran, Russia and Turkey gathered in Tehran, Iran, for a Tripartite meeting to discuss the political situation in Syria.
11 September 2018
- The Astana Guarantors, including representatives from Iran, Russia, and Turkey, held a meeting with the US Special Envoy to discuss formation and conduct of the Syrian constitutional committee, reaching a tacit agreement on on the participants, from both, the government and opposition.
27 October 2018
- Heads of State of France, Germany, Turkey, and Russia convened to exhange on Syria in a Summit in Istanbul, Turkey.
31 October 2018
- Geir O. Pedersen was appointed to the role of the UN Special Envoy for Syria.
29 November 2018
- The Eleventh Round of Astana Peace Talks were held, but was unable to reach an agreement on the membership of the Constitution Drafting Committee.
6 February 2019
- A meeting of the Small Group on Syria format was held in Washington, D.C., United States, convening representatives of Egypt, France, Germany, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom and the United States. Participants issued a joint statement expressing full support for United Nations efforts to achieve a political solution to the Syrian conflict on the basis of UN Security Council Resolution 2254 (2015).
14 February 2019
- The Presidents of Iran, Russia and Turkey convened in Sochi, Russia, for a Tripartite meeting to discuss the political situation in Syria. The participants issued a Joint Statement.
26 April 2019
- The Twelfth Meeting of the Astana Guarantors, representing Russia, Iran, and Turkey, held in the presence of the UN Special Envoy, convened in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan. The UN Special Envoy conveyed that the Guarantors expressed their support for the proposed Constitutional Committee and that further discussions had to be led with the Syrian government and the Syrian opposition.
1 August 2019
- The Thirteenth Round of the Astana peace talks were held, including Iran, Russia, Turkey, and the Syrian parties, in Kazakhstan. Progress was reported on the formation of the Constitutional Committee.
16 September 2019
- The Heads of State for Iran, Russia and Turkey met to discuss Syria, in Ankara, Turkey.
18 September 2019
- The formation of the Constitutional Committee ‘Large Body’ comprising 150 members, with one third of posts filled by the Syrian government, one third by the opposition, and the final third to be composed of Syrian Civil Society as nominated by the UN, was announced by the UN Secretary-General.
23 September 2019
- The Syrian Government and the Syrian Negotiations Commission representing opposition groups reached an Agreement on the establishment of a credible, balanced and inclusive Constitutional Committee that will be facilitated by the United Nations in Geneva, Switzerland. The ‘Large Body’ Constitutional Committee is comprised of 150 delegates. The ‘Small Body’ Constitutional Committee comprises 45 delegates, of which 15 members were nominated by the government, another 15 members were nominated by the opposition, and another 15 members are representatives from civil society, which the UN has proceeded to refer to as the ‘Middle Third.’ The Constitutional Committee was formally launched on 30 October.
31 October – 1 November 2019
- The First Working Session of the Large Body of the Syrian Constitutional Committee was held. All Committee members were invited to make opening statements offering initial ideas on constitutional issues and suggestions for the drafting body. The Committee also adopted by consensus a Code of Conduct for Members of the Constitutional Committee and Initial Procedural Practices of the co-chairs of the Constitutional Committee.
8 November 2019
- The first week of working sessions of the Syrian Constitutional Committee ‘Small Body’ concluded in Geneva, Switzerland. The session commenced with a discussion among the ‘Large Body’ Constitutional Committee on constitutional ideas and principles and on a potential framework for the constitutional settlement process.
29 November 2019
- The Second Session of the Constitutional Committee concluded. The UN Special Envoy regretted that “it was not possible to call for a meeting of the Small Body of 45, because there has not been an agreement on the agenda.” The Core Rules of Procedure foresee that the two co-chairs reach consensus and agree upon an agenda, which despite significant discussions with both co-chairs was not possible to achieve.
24 March 2020
- The UN Special Envoy issued an appeal for a nationwide ceasefire throughout Syria. This comes in light of UN Secretary-General António Guterres’ appeal to warring parties throughout the world for an immediate ceasefire to enable the human family to tackle a common enemy – COVID-19.
30 June 2020
- The European Union hosted the IV Brussels Conference titled “Supporting the Future of Syria and the Region.”
- The UN Special Envoy conveyed that the Syrian Constitutional Committee is working “to prepare and draft for popular approval a constitutional reform as a contribution to a political settlement,” adding that this may also serve as “a door-opener to unlock a broader political process, [cautioning that] any such process would need to see changes on the ground in Syria.”
1 July 2020
- A virtual Astana Summit was held between the Heads of State of Iran, Turkey and Russia.
19 July 2020
- Parliamentary elections were held. These were the third since 2011.
29 August 2020
- The Third Session of the Small Body of the Constitutional Committee concluded. The UN Special Envoy observed that “there are still very strong disagreements, [but he] was also extremely pleased to hear the two Co-Chairs saying very clearly that they thought also that there were quite a few areas of commonalities.” The UN Special Envoy opened the session recalling that commencing the work of the Constitutional Committee represents “the first agreement between the parties, and this is important to remember that there actually is an agreement between the parties, and this was the first agreement, to start to implement what is a key aspect of Security Council resolution 2254.”
4 December 2020
- The Fourth Session of the Small Body of the Syrian Constitutional Committee concluded. The UN Special Envoy informed that there “were many differences” and “tense moments”, but that for the first time the members of the Small Body “ have agreed on both an agenda (…) and on the time for the next meeting.” The meeting aimed at discussing so called national foundations and principles and will be followed-up with a fifth session, which will focus on Constitutional Principles.
29 January 2021
- The Fifth Session of the Small Body of the Syrian Constitutional Committee concluded in Geneva, Switzerland. The debates failed to bring any meaningful results. In light of the slow progress, the UN Special Envoy developed a number of proposals for a methodology on how to move forward, that have been rejected by the co-chairs. Already ahead of the meeting, the UN Special Envoy has called on the co-chairs to establish “more effective and operational working methods so that the meetings can be better organised and more focused, [adding that there is a] need to ensure that the Committee begins to move from preparing a constitutional reform into actually drafting one.”
15-16 February 2021
- A meeting of the Astana format, including representatives from Iran, Russia, and Turkey, and in the presence of the UN Special Envoy, was held in Sochi, Russia.
15 March 2021
- The day marked the tenth anniversary of the beginning of the Syrian civil war. The UN Special Envoy expressed hope emphasising “that against this very grim background that I still believe there is a mediated path out of this conflict.”
30 March 2021
- The Brussels V Conference titled “Supporting the Future of Syria and the Region” was held.
- The UN Special Envoy informed that he and his team “continue intense diplomatic engagement with the Government of Syria and the Syrian Negotiations Commission, [specifically regarding] the process of facilitating a way forward to put in place the conditions for a successful sixth session of the Constitutional Committee.”
7 July 2021
- A meeting of the Astana Guarantors was held, bringing together representatives from Iran, Russia, and Turkey, as well as from the United Nations.
22 July 2021
- A meeting of the Astana Guarantors was held, bringing together representatives from Iran, Russa, and Turkey, as well as from the United Nations, in Moscow, Russia.
22 October 2021
- The Sixth Session of the Small Body of the Syrian Constitutional Committee concluded in Geneva, Switzerland. The Committee members discussed draft constitutional texts on the following basic constitutional principles, sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of the Syrian Arab Republic, the army, armed forces, security and the intelligence, rule of law, and terrorism and extremism.
- The UN Special Envoy suggests that “we will need an understanding between all three delegations, [whether] we reach a consensus [or whether] we did not reach, [as] I can see that here there are possibilities but (…) the parties themselves have not concluded that there are commonalities.”
3 March 2022
- A meeting was held between representatives of the Arab League, Egypt, the European Union, France, Germany, Iraq, Jordan, Norway, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States in Washington D.C., U.S. to discuss the ongoing crisis in Syria. Participants issued a Joint Statement, reiterating their commitment “to the pursuit of a political resolution to the Syrian crisis in accordance with UNSCR 2254 that will protect the rights and dignity of all Syrians.”
25 March 2022
- The Seventh Session of the Small Body of the Syrian Constitutional Committee concluded in Geneva, Switzerland. The Committee members discussed draft constitutional texts on four basic constitutional principles, namely basic governance, as submitted by nominees of the Syrian Negotiations Commission, state Identity, as submitted by some of the civil society nominees, state symbols, as submitted by nominees of the Syrian government, and regulation and functions of public authorities, as submitted by nominees of the Syrian Negotiations Commission.
- The UN Special Envoy recalled “the mandate of the Constitutional Committee, [which] is to prepare and draft for popular approval a constitutional reform and as the mandate or the terms of reference says, that may be through an amendment of the current constitution or draft a new constitution.”
10 May 2022
- The VI Brussels Conference was held.
- The UN Special Envoy assessed that “We are far from that political solution,” adding that even if Syrians were “to agree on the substance of a constitutional reform or a new constitution, it could not unfold inside of Syria in a truly meaningful way, with conditions the way they are today.”
3 June 2022
- The Eighth Session of the Syrian-led, Syrian-owned Constitutional Committee Small Body concluded in Geneva, Switzerland. Participants debated a series of constitutional principles during the session, including unilateral coercive measures from a constitutional standpoint, the preservation of state institutions, the supremacy of the constitution and the hierarchy of international agreements, and transitional justice.
- Participants agreed to reconvene for a Ninth Session of the Constitutional Committee from 25 July to 29 July 2022. However, due to the actions of certain parties, the Ninth Session was cancelled.
21 March 2023
- Representatives from the United Kingdom, Egypt, France, Germany, Jordan, Norway, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Türkiye, the United Arab Emirates, the United States, the European Union, and the League of Arab States met in Amman, Jordan, to discuss the current situation in Syria. Participants issued a Joint Statement reiterating a “call for a nationwide ceasefire and for continuous and unhindered humanitarian access to all Syrians through all modalities, including both cross-border and cross-line.”
- The Twentieth Astana Guarantors meeting was held between delegates of Russia, Iran, and Turkey, and representatives of the Syrian government and the opposition. This represented the last meeting of the guarantors of the ceasefire agreement declared in December 2016. Even so, Lavrentiev said that “the Astana format is alive and will continue to work effectively for the settlement in Syria,” thanking the Kazakh authorities for their hospitality in hosting meetings in their capital since 2017 to find a resolution for the conflict in Syria.
15 June 2023
- The VII Brussels Conference titled ‘Supporting the Future of Syria and of the Region’ was held.
- The UN Special Envoy remarked that “We must renew the intra-Syrian political process. A starting point should be concrete and verifiable steps, that incrementally – step for step, and step by step – generate some trust and confidence, including among Syrians themselves, and move us forward on and towards Security Council resolution 2254.”
15 November 2023
- A French court issues an arrest warrant against Syrian President al-Assad and other senior Syrian officials for complicity in crimes against humanity and war crimes over the use of banned chemical weapons against civilians.
16 November 2023
- In a case brought by the Netherlands and Canada concerning allegations of torture against Syria, the International Court of Justice issues an interim order that directs the Syrian Government to “take all measures within its power” to prevent torture.
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The International Court of Justice in The Hague issued an interim order directing the Syrian government to “take all measures within its powers” to prevent torture.
A French court has issued an international arrest warrant for the Syrian leader Bashar al-Assad for complicity in war crimes against humanity linked to chemical weapon attacks on civilians.
The Israel-Hamas war is spilling into Syria, fueled by growing instability, violence and a lack of progress toward a political solution to its 12-year conflict, the United Nations special envoy for the country said Monday.
The UN calls for renewed diplomatic efforts to reignite the stalled Syrian peace process, emphasizing the need for substantive engagement and coordination among stakeholders to address the humanitarian crisis and move forward on the path outlined in UNSC Resolution 2254.
As the veteran Turkish ambassador Ertuğrul Apakan once noted: “Success might sometimes only be achieved after many failed attempts … there is no single recipe for successful mediation, just as no conflict is the same as another.”
Kazakhstan will stop hosting talks aimed at resolving the Syrian conflict that erupted 12 years ago, officials have announced, a decision that Russia described as a surprise.
Syrian President Bashar al-Assad should be put on trial following “hundreds of thousands of deaths” and “chemical arms use” during the country’s civil war, the French foreign minister said on Tuesday.
After more than a decade of war in Syria, some of the external powers that fed the conflict with money and arms are in talks to put a permanent end to the fighting.
With Syria at an important juncture due to renewed diplomatic attention in the aftermath of devastating earthquakes, unlocking progress on a political solution requires multiple stakeholders who hold different keys to work together, the UN’s Special Envoy said today during his Security Council briefing.
Jordan said ahead of a meeting on Friday to discuss Syria’s readmission to the Arab League it was pushing a joint Arab peace plan that could end the devastating consequences of the over decade old Syrian conflict, according to a source close to the matter.
Three senior UN officials underscored the need for a political solution to end the war in Syria, in statements marking the 12th anniversary of the conflict on Wednesday.
The Syrian conflict will only be resolved if all parties involved in it are prepared to make the kind of compromises on humanitarian grounds that followed last month’s earthquake disaster, UN negotiator Geir Pedersen said on Wednesday.
Washington has temporarily eased sanctions on the authoritarian government of President Bashar al-Assad to allow humanitarian aid to flow freely after a disastrous earthquake struck Syria.
A powerful earthquake last week catapulted Syria’s authoritarian president, Bashar al-Assad, into the global spotlight, creating an opportunity for him to inch further back onto the international stage through disaster diplomacy.
Fewer Syrians were killed in 2022 than in any other year since the civil war began in 2011. What is unclear is whether this represents the beginning of the end of this seemingly endless conflict or merely an interlude before another round of grinding violence.
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has said that he may sit down with Syrian President Bashar al-Assad to foster peace and stability in Syria, a week after a meeting between the defence ministers of the two countries.
With peace in Syria still an elusive goal, UN Special Envoy Geir Pedersen appealed on Tuesday for the Security Council to support his efforts to move the parties closer towards a negotiated political solution to end the brutal 11-year conflict.
Thousands of Syrians in rebel-held areas took to the streets on Friday to protest against a proposal from Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu for reconciliation between the Syrian government and opposition.
As Russia’s war on Ukraine grinds on, President Vladimir Putin will travel to Iran next week for a Syria summit with his Iranian counterpart Ebrahim Raisi and Turkey’s Recep Tayyip Erdogan, the Kremlin has announced.
With international focus on the war in Ukraine, a resolution to Syria’s war continues to be further than ever, as talks between the Syrian government and the opposition once again broke down.
A precarious ceasefire held in the city of Deraa on Monday after negotiators for rebel forces and the Syrian government tried to close to a comprehensive peace agreement to end a three-month siege.
The failure of the last round of United Nations-led talks between the Syrian regime and the opposition in Geneva last month has left diplomats and analysts pondering how to redirect diplomatic efforts in the face of Damascus’s staunch refusal to engage in any negotiated process.
Expectations were high for the fifth round of meetings of the Syrian Constitutional Committee’s at the UN in Geneva this week. But the report of the preliminary end of the committee’s work is devastating.
Russia underscored its role in the political future of Syria as the Moscow-backed Syrian constitutional committee met for the first time under UN auspices to chart a political settlement to end the eight-and-a-half-year civil war.
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and his Russian counterpart, Vladimir Putin, have agreed to push back Kurdish fighters from a “safe zone” along the Turkey-Syria border, after marathon talks in Sochi.
US officials have called for the UN to “try other routes to achieving the political solution.” The UN envoy for Syria has failed to make progress on a post-war constitution, once considered a priority for new elections.
Syria’s complex and devastating civil war has drawn in multiple foreign powers since it broke out in 2011. With Russia and Turkey seeking new solutions, DW examines where the major players stand on the conflict.
Delegations from the Syrian government and the political opposition have arrived in the Russian city of Sochi for talks on the war in Syria, which are spearheaded by Russia, Turkey and Iran.
The UN security council failed to agree after a second day of intensive talks on a proposed 30-day ceasefire across Syria to allow for emergency humanitarian deliveries and medical evacuations.
A 50-strong commission representing most strands of Syrian society will draft a new constitution for the country, the UN and Russia have agreed at the end of a peace conference put together by Vladimir Putin in the Russian Black Sea resort of Sochi.
Russian-sponsored diplomatic talks over the future of Syria have begun in the Black Sea resort city of Sochi, but experts predict the summit will merely attempt to enforce a political solution that is in line with the Syrian government’s agenda.
In a last-ditch push for peace in Syria, UN officials are hosting peace talks between the Damascus regime and the opposition. The Vienna talks are scheduled just days ahead of Russia’s rival peace summit.
The US is showing a new commitment to forcing the Syrian regime of Bashar al-Assad to make concessions to end the country’s seven-year civil war, but must still do more to persuade Russia to put pressure on Assad to negotiate, the Syrian opposition leader has said.
Syrian rebel groups on Monday rejected Russia’s planned Sochi conference on Syria, saying Moscow was seeking to bypass a United Nations-based Geneva peace process and blaming Russia for committing war crimes in the country.
UN-sponsored talks in Geneva designed to end the Syrian civil war have collapsed, with a deflated special envoy Staffan de Mistura admitting “a golden big opportunity” had been missed.
With a flurry of diplomatic activity, two separate summits on Syria are to be staged this week to put decisive pressure on both sides to end the civil war and thrash out a new constitution that is likely to leave President Bashar al-Assad in power.
Representatives of the Syrian opposition and President Bashar al-Assad’s regime are meeting in Astana for a sixth round of talks. They are hoping to secure a ceasefire, but how far off is a lasting peace agreement?
The UN-brokered Syrian peace talks are failing due to external interference and can only be rescued by refocusing on the issue of political transition, a coalition of 160 Syrian civil society groups has said in an open letter to the UN’s special envoy.
Syrian UN Envoy de Mistura has announced the Geneva meeting between the long-battling government and rebel groups. Despite six years of entrenched conflict, one NGO provides hope for deaf Syrians.
The UN special envoy to Syria has said he will give the latest round of peace talks that resumed in Geneva on Thursday “a serious try”, but cautioned against talking about a breakthrough in attempts to end the six-year civil war.
Tortuous efforts to install a credible international body to entrench and broaden the patchwork ceasefire in Syria have partially succeeded on the second and final day of talks in Kazakhstan.
The Syrian opposition says it will attend peace talks sponsored by Turkey and Russia in Kazakhstan next week, in a key step in the latest attempt to end the six-year civil war in Syria.
President Bashar al-Assad indicates he is willing to consider the possibility of stepping down in free elections if rebels agree to restarting peace talks later this month.
The official Syrian opposition’s veto on Kurdish involvement in peace talks must be dropped, expert warns.
Syria’s opposition plans to unveil its plans for a political transition to help end the country’s five-year war at a meeting of ministers in London next week, a delegate said.
Syria’s main opposition group, the High Negotiations Committee, has threatened to boycott the next round of peace talks unless the government stops its bombing campaign and the situation on the ground improves.
Peace talks described as a last-chance effort to avert even greater bloodshed in Syria resumed Monday, a day before the fifth anniversary of the country’s peaceful uprising that eventually devolved into catastrophic civil war.
The United States accused the Syrian government of trying to “disrupt” peace talks after the latter declared the departure of President Bashar al-Assad was a “red line” that was not open for discussion.
Diplomatic efforts to end the Syrian conflict have been plunged into a fresh crisis with the UN special envoy announcing a temporary suspension of talks in Geneva between the opposition and the government.
The UN Security Council has unanimously agreed on the text of a draft resolution for peace talks in January and a ceasefire aimed at ending the war in Syria.
Russia and the US are expected to take part in Syria peace talks in October, along with Iran, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Egypt, according to Russia’s deputy foreign minister.
Syria’s government and opposition have agreed on an agenda for a third round of peace talks in Geneva, despite disappointment at the little progress achieved as the second round came to an end.
The first round of peace talks aimed at ending the civil war in Syria has ended without any significant breakthrough as rival sides blamed each other for lack of progress.
Syria’s government has agreed to accept the peace plan put forward by the United Nations and Arab League envoy Kofi Annan, his spokesman has said.
Representatives of more than 70 nations in Tunisia for the “Friends of Syria” meeting have called for an immediate end to violence in the country and for new sanctions on the government of President Bashar al-Assad.
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