This initiative offers settlement options to conflict parties and those supporting them in the search for peace.

A settlement is possible

Key Documents 9

Negotiation News 9

Additional Resources 9

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Key events and dates

January 2011

The Arab Spring uprisings spread to Yemen with anti-government protests arising in cities across the country.

23 November 2011

President Saleh and his party, the General People’s Congress (GPC), and the Joint Meeting Parties (JMP, sign the Gulf Cooperation Council Initiative and its Implementation Mechanism in Riyadh.

December 2011

Formation of the Government of National Unity.

February 2012

Presidential elections are held with President Hadi running unopposed and formally being nominated as the President, leading to the transitional period.

18 March 2013

The National Dialogue Conference (NDC) is launched.

24 January 2014

Conclusion of the NDC with over 1,800 outcomes that are to serve as the basis for the constitutional drafting process.

10 February 2014

The Regions Committee issues its decision to base Yemen’s federal system on six regions.

21 September 2014

Following the Houthi’s takeover of the capital Sana’a, the Government under President HAdi and the Houthis sign the Peace and National Partnership Agreement (PNPA) to revitalise the transitional process.

1 January 2015

The Constitutional Drafting Committee (CDC) publishes the constitutional proposal.

23 January 2015

The Houthi alliance pressures President Hadi and Prime Minister Baha to resign.

6 February 2015

The Houthis issue a Constitutional Declaration to guide a two-year transitional period. 

26 March 2015

The Saudi-led coalition launches its military intervention in Yemen.

14 June 2015

UN-mediated peace talks commence in Geneva, Switzerland. 

15 December 2015

Parties commit to a cessation of hostilities and establish a De-escalation and Coordination Committee to monitor adherence.

11 April 2016

Parties announce a cessation of hostilities.

21 April 2016

UN sponsored peace talks in Kuwait City begin between the Houthi movement and the General People’s Congress, and the Saudi-backed government. No breakthroughs on key issues such as security arrangements, prisoner exchanges, political transition, and humanitarian access.

28 July 2016

Remnants of the General People’s Congress (GPC), the party of the former President Abdullah Saleh, and Ansar Allah sign an agreement to form a ten-member Supreme Political Council.

May 2017

Formation of the Southern Transitional Council (STC), a separatist group calling for independence of southern Yemen.

13 December 2018

Peace talks between representatives of the internationally recognized Government of Yemen and Ansar Allah, the political wing of the Houthi movement, are held in Stockholm, Sweden, culminating in the signing of the Stockholm Agreement. The Agreement aims to end fighting in the port city of Hodeidah and includes provisions for a prisoner exchange and a ceasefire in the city of Taiz. 

January 2019

The UN Mission to Support the Hodeidah Agreement is established. The civilian mission works with the Hodeidah governorate to oversee implementation of the Agreement on the city of Hodeidah and its ports.

5 November 2019

The internationally recognized Government of Yemen and the Southern Transitional Council (STC) sign the Riyadh Agreement. The Agreement establishes power-sharing arrangements.

22 June 2020

Following growing tensions and an escalation of violence between the nominal partners of the anti-Houthi alliance, the Government of Yemen and the Southern Transitional Council (STC) agree on a ceasefire and reiterate their commitment to implementing the 2019 Riyadh Agreement.

September 2020

Efforts to revive the peace process have resulted in a series of talks held in Geneva, Switzerland.

18 December 2020

Appointment of a new cabinet based on powersharing arrangements agreed upon in the Riyadh Agreement.

16 February 2022

Representatives of the internationally recognized Government of Yemen and Ansar Allah reach an agreement on the re-opening of the international airport in Sana’a and a resumption of oil and gas exports.

2 April 2022

Announcement of a two-month truce agreement between warring sides, ceasing cross border attacks and allowing oil imports and commercial flights. UN Envoy expresses desire for truce to lead to a permanent ceasefire. The truce is extended twice to last six months.

7 April 2022

President Hadi hands power to a new Presidential Council following peace talks held in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

2 August 2022

Parties have agreed on an extension of the truce agreement for another two months and committed to intensify negotiations on an expanded truce agreement.

January 2023

Representatives from Saudi Arabia and Ansar Allah engage in direct peace talks to discuss a comprehensive peace settlement.

9 April 2023

Omani-mediated peace talks between representatives of Saudi Arabia and Ansar Allah take place in Sana’a.

Positions of the sides

The two main opposing camps have largely been grouped into the Houthi alliance and the anti-Houthi bloc, while each faction is extremely diverse with at times competing interests.

The Houthis entered an alliance with former President Saleh and his allies in the GPC, while the anti-Houthi alliance was led by President Hadi and Islah, including armed factions aligned to Ali Mohsen and the Al-Ahmar family, as well as Salafi factions seeking to prevent the rise of a Shia group. The anti-Houthi alliance’s relations to southern separatist groups have been extremely dynamic, as they helped reverse Houthi gains in the south, but also fought the Hadi government demanding independence or greater autonomy for southern Yemen. The anti-Houthi alliance’s success in pushing back the Houthis was dismal until the intervention of the Saudi-led coalition, which tipped the balance of power away from the Houthi alliance and effectively culminated in a stalemate between the main powerbrokers.

 

Houthi Alliance

Houthis (Ansar Allah) 
  • Powersharing: Throughout the post-2011 transitional process, the Houthis have decried their marginalization and attempts to undermine their political and economic power. Any peace settlement would have to grant the Houthis a significant stake in a central unity government.
  • Ending Foreign Influence: The Houthis narrative throughout the conflict has long been one of acting in defense of Yemen’s sovereignty against the encroachment of foreign actors, most notably Saudi Arabia. It is expected that the Houthis will call for a complete withdrawal of coalition forces and an end to their influence in domestic affairs.
  • Import Blockades: The blockades on ports under Houthi control has resulted in a crippling humanitarian crisis as people are unable to cover their basic needs. The Houthis demand a complete lifting of all blockades on ports, including a free flow of all goods without their inspection by Saudi Arabia.
  • Public Sector Salaries: The Houthis are demanding the payment of public servants of the Ansar Allah-led government with revenues from exports of oil and gas retrieved from fields under the control of the internationally recognized Government of Yemen. Public sector salaries have not been paid in years, which made it difficult for the Sana’a based government to function.
General People’s Congress (GPC)
  • Powersharing: President Saleh and his allies in the GPC have entered an alliance with the Houthis with the primary goal of weakening the transitional government under the leadership of President Hadi and to side-line former allies that have turned against him in the 2011 uprising, notably Ali Mohsen and some members of the Al-Ahmar family. Remnants of the GPC currently part of a coalition government with the Houthis, are expected to demand powersharing arrangements and other guarantees that will allow them to solidify their current political and military positions.

 

Anti-Houthi Bloc

(Internationally Recognized) Government of Yemen
  • Peace Talks: The Government of Yemen is expected to hold grievances over its exclusion in the recent peace talks between representatives from Saudi Arabia and Ansar Allah. It is also expected that the government is less favourable of generous powersharing arrangements given its role as the de jure state authority, derived from international recognition rather than realities on the ground.
  • Reinstatement of Government: The primary strategic goal of the internationally recognized government is the expulsion of the Houthis and their GPC allies from the capital Sana’a and the re-establishment of state control over the entire sovereign territory of Yemen, with it as the legitimate authority.
  • Saudi Backing: The government is seeking continued backing from Saudi Arabia, especially in terms of political and financial assistance. Meanwhile, Saudi Arabia is keen on reaching a peace deal that would allow it to end its costly engagement in the conflict, even if this would entail abandoning their local proxies, namely the internationally recognized government.
Southern Transitional Council (STC)
  • Peace Talks: The STC has publicly expressed its dismay over the recent peace talks between Saudi and Houthi delegations, condemning its exclusive nature.
  • Powersharing: The STC’s primary strategic goal is to achieve recognition of southern Yemen as a sovereign state. However, some factions within the STC and other actors in the south have more moderate demands such as greater autonomy for the south and greater political power to shape national political decision-making.
Saudi-led Coalition
  • Peace Talks: Given the recent geopolitical developments, Saudi Arabia is more eager to reach a peace settlement than in the past and more willing to make concessions.
  • Geopolitical Interests: A broader geopolitical goal of Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and to a lesser extent other coalition partners was to reduce the influence of Iran in Yemen.
  • Reinstatement of Government: The Saudi-led coalition first entered the conflict in Yemen in response to a request for military assistance by President Hadi, with the stated goal of re-instating the internationally recognized government and of regaining ‘state authority’ over the entire territory of Yemen.
  • Stemming the ‘Threat’ of Islamists: Some members and supporters of the coalition seek to stem the threat of Islamists, that find themselves on a very wide spectrum of religious ideologies. The UAE is eager to weaken Islah, which dominates the Government of Yemen and the Emirates consider as the Yemeni branch of the Muslim Brotherhood. Saudi Arabia is supporting Islah and is known to finance Sunni Wahhabism centers in Yemen. The U.S. is seeking to combat violent jihadist groups such as AQIP and ISIL.
  • Regional Security: Saudi Arabia is demanding reassurances from Ansar Allah to halt incursions into Saudi Arabian territory and to not re-launch cross-border military campaigns, including the potential establishment of a de-militarized buffer zone along the border.
  • Import Blockade: Despite the significant humanitarian suffering caused by the blockade on imports, and condemnation from coalition supporters such as the U.S., Saudi Arabia wants to maintain the blockade to exert pressure on the Houthis to reach a peace settlement that is based on power-sharing arrangements that would include actors supportive of Saudi Arabia.
  • Public Sector Salaries: In the past, Saudi Arabia and coalition supporters, such as the U.S. have rejected Houthi demands to finance the payment of public sector salaries that would include military and security personnel under the authority of the Houthis. U.S. representatives have called the demand unreasonable. However, as part of the recent back-channel talks in preparation, Saudi representatives considered two options for the payments based on a staged approach and allowing for an audit assessment of the public employment roster by an independent agency before transferring salaries.

Narrative chronology

January 2011

People begin to gather in the streets to call for major institutional reform. 

18 March 2011

The ‘Friday of Dignity’ massacre costs the lives of over fifty demonstrators at the hands of government security forces.

21 October 2011

The UN Security Council unanimously adopts Resolution 2014 (2011), calling for implementation of a political settlement based on the GCC Initiative, urging President Ali Abdullah Saleh to sign the settlement, and requesting the Secretary-General to continue his good offices.

23 November 2011

President Saleh, and his party the General Peoples’ Congress (GPC), and the Joint Meeting Parties (JMP) sign the Gulf Cooperation Council Initiative and its Implementation Mechanism in Riyadh. The parties agreed that Presidential powers would be transferred to Vice President Abdu-Rabbo Mansour al-Hadi.

December 2011

The Government of National Unity was formed to comprise an equal number of representatives from the General Peoples’ Congress (GPC) and from the Joint Meeting Parties (JMP). 

February 2012

President Abed Rabbo Mansour Hadi was elected for a two-year transitional term. President Hadi ran unopposed, and turnout was 65%. 

12 June 2012

The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 2051 (2012), reaffirming the need for the full and timely implementation of the Transition Agreement and establishing the Sanctions Committee. 

18 March 2013

The National Dialogue Conference (NDC), a key component of the GCC Initiative, was launched in Sana’a with the participation of various political parties and social groups, including representatives of the Houthis and of Hirrak, a southern separatist group. The NDC aimed to address the root causes of conflict and draft a new constitution for Yemen.

24 January 2014

End of the NDC, with the signature of the NDC document. The conference produced 1,800 outcomes, including calling for a federal state system, extending the President’s term by a further year, calling for north south balance in the legislature, amongst other proposals. 

10 February 2014

The Regions Committee unilaterally appointed by President Hadi issues a decision that Yemen’s federal state system should comprise six regions. The decision represents a key precursor for the descent into civil war months later. 

26 February 2014

The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 2140 (2014), supporting the implementation of the National Dialogue outcomes, reaffirming the need for the full and timely implementation of the political transition, and establishing a sanctions regime under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter. 

1 March 2014

The Constitutional Drafting Committee holds its first session. 

21 September 2014

Houthi rebels take control over the capital city Sana’a. The Government and the Houthis sign the Peace and National Partnership Agreement (PNPA), which provides for powersharing arrangements and a roadmap for the completion of the constitution drafting process and the implementation of the NDC outcomes, as well as an Annex on the cessation of hostilities and disarmament in specified regions.

9 November 2014

Following the resignation of the Government of National Unity, a new transitional government is formed with Prime Minister Khaled Baha as Prime Minister.

1 January 2015

The Constitutional Drafting Committee (CDC) publishes the constitutional proposal.

23 January 2015

President Hadi and Prime Minister Baha temporarily resign from their positions in response to the Houthi and Saleh takeover of the capital Sana’a. They are put under house arrest.

6 February 2015

The Houthis issue a Constitutional Declaration to guide a two-year transitional period.

15 February 2015

The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 2201, deploring the unilateral actions taken by the Houthis to dissolve parliament and to take over Yemen’s government institutions.

February 2015

President Hadi escapes house arrest in Sana’a and flees south to the city of Aden. The Houthi alliance force pursued Hadi south to Aden.

March 2015

The Hadi government issues an official request for military assistance from the GCC to issue support in its effort to halt the advance of Houthi forces.

26 March 2015

The Saudi Arabia-led international coalition launches its intervention into the Yemeni civil war. Dubbed ‘Decisive Storm’, the military operation sought to restore President Hadi to power. 

14 June 2015

UN-mediated peace talks commence in Geneva, Switzerland. The talks collapse in August with no outcomes. The UN holds peace talks with representatives of the GPC, Ansar Allah, the JMP, and the Peaceful Southern Hiraak. The two opposing sides in the conflict refuse to convene in the same room.

July 2015

As part of the Saudi-led coalition, troops from the United Arab Emirates arrive at the southern city of Aden and expel the Houthis and aligned forces.

15 December 2015

UN-mediated peace talks are re-convened in Geneva. Direct talks are suspended after one day due to Houthi rejection of government demands to release detained senior officials. Indirect talks between the parties end on 20 December without any tangible outcomes.

During peace talks, parties committed to respect a cessation of hostilities. The UN Special Envoy for Yemen noted that the “cessation of hostilities, which was called today should mark the end of military violence in Yemen and the transition to progress based on negotiations dialogue and consensus.” UN experts provided technical assistance to formulate a peace settlement, including provisions on humanitarian access and aid, as well as for a comprehensive and permanent ceasefire.

The UN Secretary-General emphasized that “after months of civil war and thousands of lives lost, it is clear that a negotiated and inclusive political settlement is the only solution.” The parties also established a De-escalation and Coordination Committee to ensure adherence to the cessation of hostilities through coordination and exchange of relevant information.

11 April 2016

UN Special Envoy for Yemen welcomes commencement of a nation-wide cessation of hostilities beginning at midnight on 10 April in the run-up to upcoming peace talks. The UN presented a set of Terms and Conditions to guide the cessation of hostilities. The Cessation of Hostilities is being supported by the De-escalation and Coordination Committee and the Local De-escalation Committees. 

21 April 2016

UN-mediated peace talks resumed in Kuwait City. Within the framework of UNSC Resolution 2216 (2015) and other relevant UNSC resolutions, the talks aim to foster agreement on an inclusive dialogue and a return to the political transition based on the GCC initiative and NDC Outcomes. The parties discussed: withdrawal of armed forces, disarmament of heavy weapons, interim security arrangements, restoration of state institutions, resumption of inclusive political dialogue, and creation of a special committee for prisoners and detainees. The peace talks collapse in August. 

26 April 2016

UN-mediated peace talks resumed in Kuwait City. Within the framework of UNSC Resolution 2216 (2015) and other relevant UNSC resolutions, the talks aim to foster agreement on an inclusive dialogue and a return to the political transition based on the GCC initiative and NDC Outcomes. The parties discussed: withdrawal of armed forces, disarmament of heavy weapons, interim security arrangements, restoration of state institutions, resumption of inclusive political dialogue, and creation of a special committee for prisoners and detainees. The peace talks collapse in August. 

30 April 2016

During the peace talks in Kuwait, the conflict parties presented their respective visions for a peace process. The internationally recognized Government of Yemen drafted a proposal for the restoration of state institutions, the resumption of the political process, security arrangements, including the withdrawal of Houthi alliance forces and disarmament, and prisoners and detainees exchanges. Ansar Allah and the General People’s Congress (GPC) shared a proposal that included provisions on a transitional phase, the withdrawal of forces, disarmament, the release of conflict-related prisoners and detainees, and specific political elements. In addition to the written draft proposals, both parties presented their visions during plenary sessions and further elaborated on various provisions. Both proposals adhered to the parameters set out in the GCC Initiative, the outcomes of the National Dialogue Conference and pertinent UN Security Council resolutions. 

On the basis of proposals presented by the two delegations, the Office of the UN Special Envoy has commenced the drafting process of a comprehensive strategic framework agreement.

28 July 2016

The General Peoples’ Congress (GPC), the party of former President Abdullah Saleh, and Ansar Allah signed an agreement to form a ten-member Supreme Political Council (SPC) to replace the Revolutionary Committee and to head a transitional government. The mechanism included a power-sharing arrangement, whereby leadership of the council would be shared by the two parties on a rotating basis. The formation of the council was rejected by President Hadi

The UN Special Envoy rejected the establishment of the Council stating that “[t]he announcement of unilateral governing arrangements is not in line with the peace process and endangers the substantial progress made during the Kuwait talks,” and that “[t]his is a clear violation of the Yemeni Constitution and the provisions of the GCC Initiative and its implementation Mechanism.”  

19 October 2016

Resumption of a Cessation of Hostilities for an initial period of 72 hours in accordance with the Terms and Conditions of the Cessation of Hostilities of 10 April 2016. The UN Special Envoy also called for an immediate reactivation of the De-escalation and Coordination Committee (DCC) to monitor potential violations of the cessation of hostilities.

19 November 2016

Resumption of a nationwide Cessation of Hostilities for an initial period of 48 hours, which will automatically be extended if respected by all parties. The parties also committed to reactivating the De-escalation and Coordination Committee (DCC).

November 2016

The Supreme Political Council (SPC) announces the formation of the Government of National Salvation in the capital Sana’a.

29 November 2016

The UN Special Envoy condemned the formation of a new government stating that “[n]ew political arrangement should only be based on UN sponsored negotiations, and not unilateral actions by any side,” and adding that “[t]he roadmap presented to the parties recently offers such an opportunity.”

May 2017

Southern separatist leaders, including former governor of Aden al-Zubeidi, form the Southern Transitional Council (STC), calling for self-governance of the southern governorates.

July 2017

Ansar Allah and the the General People’s Congress (GPC) issued a letter calling for a resumption of the peace talks under the parameters discussed during the Kuwait peace talks. However, the parties are equally hesitant to meet the UN Special Envoy to explore concrete steps to advance the peace process.

October 2017

In a series of meetings with representatives from the conflict parties in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, the UN Special Encoy discussed a proposal for peace negotiations and a political settlement. The framework of the proposal was based on three elements: the resumption of the cessation of hostilities, specific confidence building measures to alleviate the humanitarian situation, and a return to the negotiation process to reach a comprehensive peace agreement. The UN Special Envoy pledged that the UN “remains committed to working with all parties to create the conditions for a return to meaningful bilateral negotiations.”

13 December 2018

The Stockholm Agreement is signed. The Agreement provides for (a) an agreement on the city of Hodeidah and the ports of Hodeidah, Salif and Ras Issa; (b) an executive mechanism on activating the prisoner exchange agreement; and (c) a statement of understanding on Taïz.

21 December 2018

The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 2451, endorsing the Stockholm agreement, calling on all parties to fully respect the ceasefire in Hodeidah, and authorizing the Secretary-General to establish and deploy, for an initial period of 30 days, an advance monitoring team on the ground, to support and facilitate the immediate implementation of the Stockholm agreement.

16 January 2019

The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 2452 (2019), establishing a Special Political Mission to support the Hodeidah Agreement in Yemen. The civilian mission has worked with the Hodeidah governorate to oversee implementation of the Agreement on the City of Hodeidah and its Ports.

17 January 2019

The Supervisory Committee on the Implementation of the Prisoners and Detainees Exchange Agreement held its first meeting in Amman, Jordan. The Supervisory Committee was established under the framework of the Stockholm Agreement to facilitate the release of conflict-related detainees from all sides. It brings together delegations from the parties to the conflict, as well as representatives from the Arab Coalition. The Committee is co-chaired by the Office of the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Yemen (OSESGY) and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).

5-8 February 2019

The second meeting of the Supervisory Committee on the Implementation of the Prisoners and Detainees Exchange Agreement was held in Amman, Jordan. While there have been no concrete outcomes, the parties demonstrated their eagerness to advance this part of the implementation of the Stockholm Agreement by providing additional information on the status of individuals included in the lists of prisoners. A first set of meetings of the so-called Sub-Committee on Dead Bodies and Human Remains also took place on the sidelines.

16 May 2019

Yemeni parties concluded a three-day meeting to discuss the implementation of the economic provisions of the Hodeidah Agreement. The meeting was led by the Office of the UN Special Envoy and included representatives from he World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the United Nations Development Programme.

August 2019

The Southern Transitional Council (STC) expels President Hadi from the city of Aden after heavy fighting in the city’s streets.

5 November 2019

The Government of Yemen and the Southern Transitional Council (STC) sign the Riyadh Agreement, which includes a smaller government of 24 ministers, equal distribution of cabinet positions between north/south, and redeployment of military forces from Aden, Abyan and Shabwa

The UN Special Envoy issued an official statement welcoming the signing of the Riyadh Agreement, noting that “[t]he signing of this agreement is an important step for our collective efforts to advance a peaceful settlement to the conflict in Yemen.”

18 December 2019

President Hadi announces a new government as per the political annex of the Riyadh Agreement. The new government moves from 70% South representation to just over 50%, with representation of the Hadramout Conference. Concerns are raised regarding exclusion of key groups and experience of some Ministers.

16 February 2020

The third meeting of the Supervisory Committee on the Implementation of the Prisoners and Detainees Exchange Agreement was held to develop a detailed plan to complete the first official large-scale exchange of prisoners since the beginning of the conflict. At the conclusion of the seven-day meeting, the parties agreed to immediately begin with exchanging lists for an upcoming release.

26-27 February 2020

The UN Special Envoy hosted a two-day consultative meeting with Yemeni public and political figures to explore the prospects of resuming the formal political process. Participants debated on different approaches, guarantees and incentives that could help the peace process move forward.

The UN Special Envoy highlighted that “[f]or three and a half years, since the talks in Kuwait, there has been no formal, UN-mediated negotiations over the substance of an agreement that would go beyond confidence-building measures and comprehensively end this conflict.”

March 2020

Ansar Allah and the Government of Yemen responded positively to a call for a ceasefire agreement issued by the UN Secretary-General on 25 March. The UN Special Envoy proposed to facilitate a meeting between the parties to follow up on their commitments and also shared with the Government of Yemen and Ansar Allah a draft proposal for a comprehensive agreement based on  the following elements: a proposal for a nationwide ceasefire agreement; a set of economic and humanitarian measures to alleviate the suffering of Yemeni people and build confidence between the parties; and, a commitment to the resumption of the political process.

The UN Special Envoy stated that he urges “the parties to accept these proposed agreements without delay and begin working together through a formal political process to comprehensively end the war.”

8 April 2020

Announcement of a unilateral ceasefire by the Saudi-led coalition for an initial period of two weeks. The stated aim of the ceasefire was to create an environment conducive for peace negotiations under the auspices of the UN.

The UN Security Council issued a statement on 10 April commending the ceasefire announcement and calling on all parties to adhere to the UN Secretary-General’s call of 25 March to cease hostilities.

25 April 2020

Southern Transitional Council (STC) declares a state of emergency in Aden and the southern governorates of Yemen, a move which undermines the Riyadh Agreement. The STC issued a statement announcing self-governance in areas under its control. The growing tensions between the internationally recognised Government of Yemen and the STC is indicative of the fragmentation within the anti-Houthi alliance.

The UN Envoy expressed his concern at the latest developments stating that “[t]he Riyadh Agreement provides for the participation of the STC in consultations on the final political solution to end the conflict in Yemen.”

27 May 2020

Seawater leaked into the SAFER oil tanker located off the shores of Yemen, threatening to sink the vessel and to cause an oil spill. Representatives of the Government of Yemen and the Houthis first approached the United Nations to provide support in resolving the SAFER oil tanker issue. Ansar Allah eventually agreed to a UN proposal for a mission conducted by UN experts to assess the vessel and to develop recommendations on how to avoid risks related to a potential oil spill.

2 June 2020

A high-level pledging conference was held to address the humanitarian crisis in Yemen. The event brought together more than 125 representatives from Member States, INGOs, UN agencies, NGOs and civil society to raise funding to meet the humanitarian needs of people affected by the conflict.

8-9 June 2020

The UN Special Envoy hosted inclusive consultations with Yemenis from across the country through an online portal. Over 500 participants, mostly representing civil society organizations, expressed their views on the prospect of a nationwide ceasefire, the future of the political peace process, and on key humanitarian and economic issues. The consultations revealed that 85 percent of the participants agreed that the resumption of the peace talks is both important and urgent.

22 June 2020

The Government of Yemen and the Southern Transitional Council (STC) agreed on a ceasefire and reiterated their commitment to implementing the 2019 Riyadh Agreement. Tensions between the two parties flared after the STC assumed control of the strategically located island of Socotra. The STC receives backing from the United Arab Emirates, a coalition partner of Saudi Arabi in the anti-Houthi alliance.

28 July 2020

Representatives from Saudi Arabia issue an announcement on steps taken to further the implementation of the Riyadh Agreement, in an effort to reinvigorate the peace process.

26 August 2020

The Southern Transitional Council (STC) issued a statement announcing a suspension of their participation in the Riyadh Agreement. The STC justified their actions with the collapse of public services in the south and a military escalation by government forces in Abyan province.

17 September 2020

Representatives of Germany, Kuwait, Sweden, and the UK co-hosted a meeting to discuss the need for a political settlement in Yemen. The meeting also convened delegates from the U.S., China, France, Russia, and the EU. In a joint communiqué, the representatives stressed “the need for the parties, through the political process, to swiftly conclude a comprehensive transitional agreement in order to end the conflict, usher in a transitional period where power is shared among diverse political and social components, and at the end of this period, ensure a peaceful transition of power to a new, inclusive government on the basis of credible national elections.”

September 2020

Efforts to revive the peace process have resulted in a series of talks held in Geneva, Switzerland.

27 September 2020

Conclusion of the week-long fourth meeting of the Supervisory Committee on the Implementation of the Prisoners and Detainees Exchange Agreement. Delegates representing the Government of Yemen and Ansar Allah reached an agreement on the release of 1,081 conflict-related prisoners, which represents an important step in the implementation of the Stockholm Agreement and an important confidence-building measure. Participants also agreed to convene a subsequent meeting of the Supervisory Committee with the aim of implementing the remainder of the outcomes of the meeting held in Amman, Jordan, in February.

15-16 October 2020

Implementation of the release of prisoners agreed on 27 September 2020.

17 October 2020

The UN Security Council has urged parties to reach an agreement on the “Joint Declaration to enable negotiation of a comprehensive transitional agreement to end the conflict where power is shared among diverse political and social components.”

10 December 2020

The Office of the UN Special Envoy on Yemen held a meeting with representatives of Yemeni civil society organizations working on issues related to prisoners of conflict and detainees.

18 December 2020

Within the framework of the Riyadh Agreement, President Abdrabuh Mansour Hadi formed a new cabinet of the Government of Yemen as a key step in the implementation of the Agreement.

30 December 2020

Attack on the newly formed cabinet of the Government of Yemen upon their arrival at Aden airport.

24 January 2021

The fifth meeting of the Supervisory Committee on the Implementation of the Prisoners and Detainees Exchange Agreement started in Amman, Jordan. The UN Special Envoy urged all participants to “fulfill their Stockholm [Agreement] commitment of releasing all conflict-related detainees as soon as possible.”

21 February 2021

The fifth meeting of the Supervisory Committee on the Implementation of the Prisoners and Detainees Exchange Agreement between the parties to the conflict in Yemen concluded in Amman, Jordan. The meeting did not yield concrete outcomes. 

22 March 2021

Saudi Arabia and the Government of Yemen proposed a nationwide ceasefire and announced their intention to end the conflict and to reach a comprehensive political settlement. This includes a lifting of blockades on Sana’a International Airport and a number of seaports, as well as the establishment of a UN humanitarian corridor in the city of Marib. Houthi representatives have rejected the proposal requesting a full lift of the blockade on the Hodeidah port and that humanitarian issues be addressed separately from political considerations. The Houthi representative also announced their readiness to engage with the U.S., Saudi Arabia, and Oman on negotiating a peace settlement. The announcement comes amid Oman mediated peace talks between Yemen’s main conflict parties.

16 February 2022

Representatives of the internationally recognized Government of Yemen and Ansar Allah reach an agreement on the re-opening of the international airport in Sana’a and a resumption of oil and gas exports.

28 February 2022

The UN Security Council adopts Resolution 2624 (2022), renewing the Yemen sanctions regime for one year, calling the Houthis a terrorist group and adding the Houthis as an entity to the Yemen sanctions list, subject to the measures of the targeted arms embargo in resolution 2216, for having engaged in acts that threaten the peace, security, and stability of Yemen.

2 April 2022

The Government of Yemen, the Saudi-led Coalition and Ansar Allah have reached a truce agreement to come into effect immediately and be upheld for two months. The parties agreed to halt all offensive military air, ground and maritime operations inside Yemen and across its borders, and to allow fuel ships to enter Hodeidah port and flights to operate from Sana’a International Airport. Parties also committed to negotiations on the reopening of roads in Taiz and other governorates.

The UN Secretary-General remarked that the “ultimate aim must be a negotiated political settlement which addresses the legitimate concerns and aspirations of all Yemenis.”

7 April 2022

President Hadi hands power to a new Presidential Council following peace talks held in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Council comprises eight members, is chaired by Rashad al-Alimi and tasked with negotiating a permanent ceasefire with Ansar Allah representatives. Vice President Ali Mohsen, who has been a major powerbroker since the rise of former President Saleh and in the post-uprising transition, was also stripped of his powers.

28 May 2022

The Military Coordination Committee formed as part of the truce agreement, convened its first meeting in Amman, Jordan. Participants explored the establishment of a joint coordination mechanism for regular dialogue and communication to de-escalate and address incidents.

Parties also concluded an initial round of talks on a proposal for reopening of roads and the establishment of an implementation mechanism with guarantees.

1 June 2022

Saudi Arabia and the Houthis resume Omani supported back-channel talks.

2 June 2022

A renewal of the truce agreement has been agreed upon by the Government of Yemen and Ansar Allah.

6 June 2022

The Military Coordination Committee convened its second meeting for negotiations on opening roads in Taiz and other governorates as per the truce agreement. The UN Special Envoy shared an updated proposal for a phased re-opening of roads and an implementation mechanism with guarantees.

18 June 2022

The International Forum on Yemen is held in Stockholm, Sweden.

The UN Special Envoy welcomed the facilitation of the forum, advocating for “a UN-led multi-track process that addresses the priorities of the warring parties within the context of a wider Yemeni-informed agenda.”

5 July 2022

The Military Coordination Committee convened its third meeting to reinforce their commitment to the truce and to explore the formation of the joint coordination room that will be tasked with de-escalating incidents at the operational level. Representatives appointed a working group that commenced detailed, technical discussions to consolidate proposals in that regard.

1 August 2022

Conclusion of the sixth meeting of the Supervisory Committee on the Implementation of the Detainees Release and Exchange Agreement. Parties agreed to conclude a consolidated list of detainees for releases, to facilitate visits by the ICRC to detention centers, and to establish a joint committee tasked with verifying the identities of the nominated detainees.

2 August 2022

Parties have agreed on an extension of the truce agreement for another two months and committed to intensify negotiations on an expanded truce agreement.

The UN Special Envoy for Yemen also shared a draft proposal for an expanded truce agreement, which has received substantive comments from the parties. The proposal focused on the regular payment of salaries and pensions, reopening of roads, additional flight connections from Sana’a International Airport, and greater access to fuel. The proposal also aimed to provide a framework for negotiations on a nationwide ceasefire, the resumption of a political process, and for progress on economic and humanitarian issues. According to the UN, the aim is to “create a conducive environment for reaching a peaceful settlement to the conflict through a comprehensive political process.”

2 October 2022

The truce agreement expires after six months despite international diplomacy to extend it.

9 November 2022

Conclusion of a one-day meeting on Gender Inclusion and the need of Track-II peacebuilding efforts held in Amman, Jordan. In conjunction with the European Union initiative that aims to advance the inclusion of diverse actors in Track-II peacebuilding, the meeting convened a range of CSOs and INGOs working in Yemen.

January 2023

Representatives from Saudi Arabia and Ansar Allah engage in direct peace talks to discuss a comprehensive peace settlement.

11 March 2023

The seventh meeting of the Supervisory Committee on the Implementation of the Detainees’ Exchange Agreement commenced in Switzerland under the auspieces of the UN Special Envoy for Yemen and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).

20 March 2023

An exchange of 887 prisoners, including fifteen Saudi nationals has been agreed. Prisoner exchanges are envisioned within the Stockholm Agreement as confidence building measures.

Following the seventh meeting of the Supervisory Committee on the Implementation of the Detainees’ Exchange Agreement in Switzerland, representatives from Ansar Allah and from the Government of Yemen issued an implementation plan for the release of 887 conflict-related detainees. The parties also agreed to reconvene in May and vowed to undertake joint visits to their opposing sides’ detention facilities and to ensure access to all detainees during these visits.

The UN Special Envoy for Yemen and the ICRC pledged their support for the implementation of the Agreement, including in the form of humanitarian visits to detention facilities and the repatriation of detainees.

9 April 2023

The Government of Oman mediated peace talks between a delegation of Saudi representatives and an Ansar Allah delegation in Sana‘a. The Saudi and Omani delegates reportedly met with the head of the Houthi Supreme Political Council, Mahdi al-Mashat. The parties committed to an eight month-long ceasefire. A draft peace settlement proposes different stages for the peace process, including an initial ceasefire for six months, to be followed by a three-months period for peace negotiations on a framework for a political transition, which is to last two years. During the transitional phase, parties are to reach a comprehensive political settlement.

The negotiations ran parallel to the ongoing peace talks held under the auspices of the UN Special Envoy. The UN Special Envoy welcomed the peace talks and proposed to built upon the progress with include peace talks under the auspices of the United Nations.

The peace talks were ushered in by the recent reproachment between Saudi Arabia and Iran, which has provided some assistance to the Houthi movement.

14 April 2023

Under the terms agreed upon at the seventh meeting of the Supervisory Committee on the Implementation of the Detainees’ Exchange Agreement, the release of nearly 900 conflict-related detainees has commenced. The parties committed hold another meeting in May to facilitate the release of more detainees.

18-22 September 2023

In their first official visit to Saudia Arabia since the outbreak of the war, a Houthi delegation has held talks with Saudia Arabia in Riyadh on the terms of a potential settlement. According to reports, progress was made on key issues such as a timeline for the withdrawal of foreign troops from Yemen, and a mechanism to pay public servant salaries. The reopening of Houthi-controlled ports and the Sanaa airport, as well as reconstruction efforts, were also discussed. Considering the present state of discussions, the US special envoy, Timothy Lenderking, stated that ‘This is the best opportunity for peace in Yemen since the war broke out.

However, leaders of the Southern Yemen independence movement complained that they had been sidelined from these critical talks in Riyadh. They warned that any peace deal cannot be imposed upon the south.

Key news sources

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Hopes for Peace on Hold in Yemen

The sad reality today is that Houthi attacks against commercial and naval vessels in the Red Sea have made continued progress towards a sustainable peace elusive,” said Ambassador Wood.

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The Saudi-Iranian rivalry: Yemen’s ceasefire as a turning point

The UN Secretary-General’s Special Envoy for Yemen, Hans Grundberg, announced the Yemeni parties’ agreement to put forward a roadmap to to end the conflict in Yemen through a pledge to take measures to implement a ceasefire across the country and enhance living conditions in Yemen.

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Yemen peace talks in motion again: Official

A leader in Yemen’s Ansarallah resistance movement, Ali al-Qahoum, confirmed that Omani-mediated negotiations between his group and Saudi Arabia are once again in motion, coming almost two weeks after it was reported that the talks had collapsed.

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Saudis, Houthis shake hands in Yemen. Peace will take much more.

Throughout eight years of war in Yemen, the scene that unfolded a week ago appeared unthinkable: A senior official from Saudi Arabia arriving in the capital, Sanaa, to publicly shake hands, smile, and negotiate with sworn enemies – the Iran-backed Houthi rebels who control the capital and the northwest of the country.

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Warring Parties in Yemen Announce Overlapping Cease-Fires

The Saudi-led coalition fighting the Houthi rebels in Yemen began a unilateral cease-fire on Wednesday, saying it hoped to pave the way toward ending a seven-year war that has shaken the security of the Persian Gulf and caused one of the world’s worst humanitarian crises.

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